Foundation is the basis for any building. A stronger the foundation, more durable the building. Depending on the ground type, height and shape of the building and its predicted load, type of foundation can be chosen.
Wall Footing –
Being a component of shallow foundation, Wall Footing serves to distribute the weight of a load-bearing wall across the area of the ground. Also known as Strip Footing, it is a continuous strip of reinforced concrete.
Spread Footing –
As the name suggests, Spread Footing is wider and more spread at the bottom facilitating distribution of load over a larger area. As the weight is diffused equally over the whole building area instead of some points, it minimizes the chances of cracking. Hence it operates under the least possibility of failure.
Stepped or Pedestal Footing –
With the aim of keeping the metal columns away from direct contact with soil in order to save it from corrosion, Pedestal Footing are built to bear the load of metal columns and take this load to the ground below.
Footings having sloping top or side faces is referred to Sloped Footing. It is helpful in form work construction.
Combined Footing –
When the distance between two adjacent columns is narrow enough for a single footing to be used as a support, then Combined Footing is used. The preferred footing shape is trapezoidal or rectangular, based on the loads. Combined footing is a type of spread footing.
There are other types of foundations such as Mat footing, Strap footing, Pile footing and Drilled bell pier. Type of footing can be chosen based on the requirement.